Where necessary cases are pursued through the civil courts, such as the Tax Tribunal. If the court finds in favour of HMRC, taxpayers can be ordered to pay the unpaid tax with interest and, potentially, penalties but do not face criminal sanctions.
Figures from HMRC suggest that tax evaders, including those operating in the hidden economy and those who undertake organised criminal attacks on the tax system, deprive the public purse of around £14bn. Although the figure cannot, by definition, be regarded as the definitive figure, the cost to the UK economy is substantial. Mr Starmer was keen to dispel the idea of tax evasion as a victimless crime, stating that tax ‘cheats’ cost each household the equivalent of £530 a year.
In the most serious cases of tax evasion, HMRC will commence a criminal investigation. The cases are selected in accordance with HMRC’s criminal investigation policy. As HMRC is not a prosecuting authority, it provides the evidence for the CPS to make a decision on criminal charges in England and Wales. In Scotland and Northern Ireland this is done through the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service and the Public Prosecution Service Northern Ireland. The CPS has been responsible for prosecuting tax cases since 2010. Prior to that date the Revenue and Customs Prosecution Office was the prosecuting authority. The CPS secured 200 convictions in tax cases in 2010/2011, but this increased to more than 400 in 2011/2012. It has a conviction rate of about 86 per cent.
The CPS announced that HMRC will refer sufficient cases to enable prosecutions for non-organised tax fraud to rise from:
• 165 individuals in 2010/2011.
• 565 individuals in 2012/2013).
• 1165 individuals in 2014/2015.
These figures represent a significant increase in the risk for taxpayers suspected of fraud, and will make it more likely that they will be subject to criminal sanction. In addition to the above individuals, the CPS will continue to prosecute organised tax fraud.