Regulation  

Advisers urged to educate staff on data rules

Mr Tran said: "If you have done mass spam marketing to clients that are not expecting it, it will be a breach of any one of articles five, six, seven and nine of GDPR and will be tier one.

"It is not just huge scale data breaches that attract huge fines. It is errors and lapses in the ordinary course of business that can attract the highest level of fines from the Information Commissioner's Office (ICO)."

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damian.fantato@ft.com